According to Tolkappiam it is learnt that the great sage Agastya brought all the 18 clan of Velirs to the south after some kind of natural calamity struck the northern part of the country on those days, most importantly the sinking of Dwaraka besides they are from the kingdom of Lord Krishna who was the god who protected and saved these people from the difficulties they faced time to time. Until those times it seems that these Velirs had ruled northern part of this continent besides there are few civilizations ruled by Velirs present in the south also. In the historical years when they were under the protection of Lord Thirumal these group of peoples are popularly known by the name of Yadavars. The fact that they are named as Yadavars is due to the reason that Lord Krishna belonged to the Yadhu race. Yadhu race can be traced to the lineage of Pandavars. Yadhu is a king of Pandavars who was born to a Queen by the name Yayathi.
It is learned that from this ancestry several race were born who established kingdoms in various parts of the earth. One of the first race of the Yadhu is Sakasrjeththenalae Hayahaya to whom belonged king Kaarththaveereyaarchchunan, from king Kaarththaveereyaarchchunan another king Thaazhajangkarkazh. From Yadhus second son who belonged to the race of Kurooshdusha – some of famous persons of this race are Sacepenthu, Seyaamagan, Vetharppan etc., Vetharppan’s third son belonged to the Saethe race, from second son Saathva came the race Boojha race, Anthaka race Verushneeka race. From this Verushneeka race Lord Krishnan was born. Even Karnnan belongs to this Yadhu race because he is known by the name Yathuthaanan. There is a temple in the Tulunadu known by the name Yathugiri which is situated on a mountainous region. This temple is said to have 9 sacred water. This place is also known by the name Yaathavagiri and is said to be present since DwaparaYuga. Other name for this place is ThiruNarayanapuram, Melai Kootai etc., Sage Balaramar have visited this place. Of course this is an ancient temple for Lord Krishna. Dwapara Yugam is also known by the Yakkeum. The Varahaavatharam is also known by the name Yakkeavaraham. Yavanaari is yet another name for Lord Krishna. Velirs have 18 clans among them, surprisingly Yadhavars also have 18 clans among them. Interestingly in the Tanjore district of Mannargudi, Tuluva Velalars claim that the Yadhavars in their locality are relatives to them. It is in Mannargudi one of the 108 Divya Desam Sri Raja Gopalaswami Temple is present. Very few scholars address Mannargudi as Dwaraka of South.
When Dwaraka was present it is said that this city was built of Gold. One of the Pulavar Kapilar addresses a velir by the name ErungkooVel who had ruled Dwarka and that his fort was made of Copper. On those days cities and buildings were made up of metals! A feat not possible even today.
Among the many forms of Lord Krishna one was that he had Blue skin and Lord Shiva had dark-blue skin. Even today there are sightings that in some remote part of the world particularly in the ocean region that there are people who blue in color and any who makes any attempt to go near these places is somehow prevented through some natural forces besides any attempt to go near them or to their places with the help of scientific equipments have only resulted only in a futile exercise. The possible location of existence of these people is remote parts of all of the island present in and around japan including the regions in the water, channels of the rivers, seas, lakes, ponds and various water bodies present in Europe, desert regions in parts of Africa particularly in and around Sahara – these peoples is said to have been using their alphabets for many centuries and caves present in the American continent as a whole. None of the above said places are that easily accessible because some kind of Layers prevents them from doing so.
Marine Archeological Excavations: During year 2001 NIOT found cities that had geometrical alignment along the 9 km long strech Gulf of Cambay, west of Hazira, Gujarat. This resembled both harappan and pre-harappan ruins with well laid basements for houses, drainage network, many structures closely resembling Great Bath besides two rivers one running upto 9 km and the other upto 9.2 km flowing in the east-west direction that coincides with the course with the Tapti and Narmada rivers. Perhaps the river got changed its course and started to flow in a new direction. Artefacts, constructions elements with holes and studs, pot shreds beads and fossil bones etc., were found at this site. The artifacts collected included a variety of pottery pieces, Mesolithic stone tools, a few Paleolithic macro stone tools, arm portion of a women with bracelet in her wrist, object with a drilling process that might involve lathe indicating the use of machines, beads made of semiprecious stones, brick pieces, hearth material, wattle and daub structure materials, corals, perfectly holed stones, fossilized human remains and human teeth. Semi-circular and Rectangular blocks with some of them having a L-shape cut and provision for dowels have been found in Dwaraka. Harappan settlements dating back to 16th century B.C., had been found in and the Porbandar coast – on those days it was a centre for maritime activity.
Near Gulf of Cambay another archeological site Padri that resembles Harappan and pre-harappan site had been found. It is found that river Chatranji originally flowed west but due to some natural calamity got its direction changed to east and by connecting Chatranji with the river found in Gulf of Cambay it is found that it flowed up to Prabhaspattan another pre-harappan settlement which lies in the Arabian Sea. In the year 2005 another river that extends upto 250 km in the Gulf of Cambay was discovered which was discovered as a joint effort of geologists and scientists at the Space Application Centre.
There are other finds too such as kiln-burnt potsherds, fused articles with a flat surface with a cylindrical or flat object fused on to it; circular and triangular cakes with precisely drilled holes, even 2 in. long cylindrical beads perforated along the axis and two tablets-in-bas-relief with inscriptions (one with a possible pictorial motif of a person seated in a yogic posture – a typical pictorial motif of objects found at Mohenjodaro and Harappa inscribed with script and another with a triangular sign with lines drawn parallel to the base-line – a pictograph which looks similar to the sign of the Harappan script), semi-fossilized bones (of a bovine), a fossilized jaw-bone, a fossilized part of a vertebral column, a human tooth., semi-precious stone beads with perforated holes of 1cm to less than 1 mm. in diameter. Daimabad, located on the Pravara was the place where civilization flourished in the southern most region on those days. Pravara river is actually one of the tributaries of the river Godhavari. The fact that this lied in the southern most region on those days suggests that the people were moving only in the southerly direction.
The temple for Vishnu’s Matsya incarnation which was build on those days can still be found at the place called Shankhodhara in Bet Dwaraka. Dwaraka was a city that was build on the ruins of another city named Kususthali which on those days was lost to the sea. Dwaraka city of Gold and Golden Gateway on those days is situated in Gomti river where it meets the Arabian sea. Dwaraka extended upto Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) in the north and Okhamadhi in the south Eastward and upto Pindara in the eastward direction. Large Trapezoidal blocks were used as stones for building activities and they had anti erosion structure in the sea also. Dwaraka is one of the Saptapuri, one of seven main holy cities and the others are Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Kashi (Varanasi), Ujjain, and Kanchipuram. It is also one of the four holy dhamas in India, the others being Rameswaram, Puri, and Badrinath. It seems that Dwaraka was build on cities that were build over and over again. The Tamil Alwars have sung of Dwarka in a total of 13 verses, in which Nammalwar refers to Krishna as the Lord of Dwaraka. There are atleast 12 archeological Indus valley sites in the Gulf of Cambay.
Even though there are so many evidences to suggest that this is Dwaraka these excavations might not be the real Dwaraka but the places occupied by native Dravidians after a long time of Dwaraka submergence. Dwaraka will be lying deep underneath. These excavations is just another glorious city of Indus Valley civilization for the simple reason that there are so many unique characteristics of this civilization present in these excavations. One of the reason for dismissing that this might not be the real Dwaraka is when Dwaraka was built our literature addresses that this city was glittering of Gold and building were made of other metals including gold. But marine archeological excavations did not yield much quantity of gold or other metals. The period that these cities existed might actually correspond to the age of Second Tamil Sangam.
In the vicinity of Gulf of Cambay was another important Indus valley site Lotal a port city and a center for bead industry. The city was destroyed by floods over and over again but was build over and over again also on higher platforms and a huge wall was build to encircle the city in order to protect the city from floods. There were warehouse for storing the commodities and recently a warehouse having 64 rooms with passages for each room was discovered. Here the Dockyard and warehouse was connected by a long wharf. Dockyards of those times can handle 30 ships of 60 tonnes each and vice versa. Copper Smith workshops were also present. Excavations at Lothal have brought to light a Persian Gulf seal, terracotta models of African mummy, guerrilla and boat model, demonstrating the maritime practices and relations with Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. Even thought copper kind of materials were a rare in the findings of the marine archeological excavations that carried in the Gulf of Cambay, the least evidence of copper presence is present in Lotal indicates people were producing this metal and they had workshop for this indicating they were skilled in using this metal. This usage of copper must have been from the previous knowledge of the people who inhibited this and the surrounding areas of this city on those days.
Another city Dholavira, that belonged to the Indus Valley civilization was discovered by ASI after a 9 year long excavation. Dholavira is known for its sophisticated water management system. Giant reservoirs the largest measuring 263 feet by 39 feet and 24 feet in depth that together held more than 325,000 cubic yards of water was discovered which were connected to wells that filled cisterns for drinking and bathing. Dholavira had Dams and extremely fine small beads made up of Golds were found here. Dholavira city is divided into 49 squares having perfect geometry and alignment and the houses were constructed using circular structures to withstand storm and sandblast. Dholavira had two stadiums which was discovered recently, one is located 2.6 metres away from the southern side of the citadel and 30 metres from the southwest corner of the bastion. The length at the highest point is 24.75 metres and is 25.25 metres at the lowest. The stadium has a width of 8.25 metres and an extending height of 250 metres and the other is situated to the east of stadium number one and is located at a higher level. This stadium, which appears to be in a step format, is 22.20 metre in length and 14.50 metre in width. Also, the stadium is 110 metres higher than stadium number one. One of the stadium had space for accommodating 10,000 peoples. The fact that Dholavira was divided into 49 squares is very interesting because our tamil literatures do mention of a very huge empire eons ago which had 49 countries which were divided as 7 x 7 sectors. DholaMozhithevar one of the great learned Tamil pandit who wrote a treatise in tamil might be from this area. More over a minister from the kingdom of Thirumangai Alwar by the name Dholavazhakkan might also be from Dholavaria.
Velirs were once CHALUKYAS: Dwaraka had been swallowed up by the sea. Krishna had warned Yadhavars about the fury that their city will be destroyed by the ocean and advised them to go to a safer place and Krishna had saved these people from the natural calamity. After this it seems that they had entered into parts of Gujarat and places that lied south of the Vindya mountains. The kings who ruled these regions during the ancient period are known by the common name Chalukyas. The Chalukyas are addressed in the Tamil classical Literature as Vel, Velpulavarasar, Velpulavarasar Chalukaventhar, Tarakaariunch Chalukuventhanum, Vaenelazhanum Vaezhanalakum – Suggesting that they belong to the Velir clan. Exclusive Chola literature addresses Chalukyas as Vezhlkulatharasar, VezhlkulachChaluka. Great tamil poet, Avvayar had sung about a velalar king Ambarkezhan Saenththanar and this king in his notes had written that the flag of the Chalukyas had a flag of Varaha, a unique kind of mythical animal that looked similar to Boar which was present many thousand years ago. One of the Lord Vishnu’s Avtar is Varaha Avtar. Evolution of Boar can be traced back to 36,600,000 B.C. This kind of symbol was present in the flag of the Chalukya kings.
During some period the Chalukyas had split themselves into two with one of them ruling the Gujarat and the regions that lied in the vicinity of Vindya mountains and the other ruling the regions that lied south of Vindya mountains – this includes the parts of Maharashtra or Maharashtra as a whole with Ajanta and Ellora region and regions that lied around the river Godhavari. We have already seen that a city named Daimabad which lied on the tributary of the river Godhavari was discovered. So, civilization must have flourished in the surrounding regions of the river Godhavari and also on the banks of the Godhavari. From then Chalukyas were called as Upper Chalukyas and Lower Chalukyas. There is a character by the name Chaazhluvan who had almost 80% of powers of Lord Krishna and fought with Krishna over issue of Rukumani but lost his life. Had Krishna blessed the yadhavars with the powers of Chaazhluvan and named the yadhavars as Chalukyas. There is a place in north India named Chaazhakgramam – an ancient worshiping centre for Lord Vishnu as mentioned in Tamil literature. Had this name have been given to yadhavars to call themselves as Chazhlukyas i.e., Chalukyas. Chalukyas ancient kingdom was called Gangatheera i.e., kingdom that existed in the river Ganga, they belonged to the race of the Moon i.e., Chanadrakulam and they used the flags that resembled to the 18 clan of Yadhavars. A statement issued in the Bombay Gazetteer about Chalukyas and a coincidental poem of Puranaanooru was compared and it revealed that they had already belonged to the northern part of the region and they belonged to the velir clan. Our great history of Magadha Nadu actually starts from here. In Gujarat there is a place called Velavadar National Park, home to blackbuck, a 36 km long patch of grassland lying between the 2 rivers, few kms from Gulf of Cambay, the park soil is said to have its origin in sea.
Ellora lying in this part of the region is actually known by the name Elaapuram. The Bombay Gazetteer states that this is known as Vaezhlur Vaezhuyrakam or Velur Vaezhuyrakam. Found in one of the panel of a wall of the Ellora is one of the lion art which represents most of the lion art found in the pallava region of Mahabalipuram and also Yazhi with Horns is something unique present on the panel and this kind of Yazhi is found in the Kailasanathar temple in Kancheepuram another city of Velir Pallava. There are a no. of similarities that can be found between the arches in the Ellora monuments and Ajantha monuments that can be easily compared with that of the arches present in the Gopura present in the monuments of Mahabalipuram.
Ellora have undergone some kind of change in few forms which were prevalent before that such as a fused kind of arch i.e., a arch within an arch. Besides pillars in temples in the Deccan pleateu looked different from others and this change can be seen in the few monuments present in Ellora.
Besides Temples build on Dravidian Style of Architecture is present in Ellora particularly the Kailasanathar temple present in cave no.16 of the Ellora. Kailasanatha Temple built on a high plinth and enclosed by a courtyard. High plinth indicates creating a raised ground. The concept of building this temple seems to represent both real and mythical mountains like Mandira, Meru, etc., No-body knows how many years it took to complete this grandest temple. This temple is compared in many ways to the temple present Pattadakal-Virupaksha and Kailasanatha Temple Kancheepuram. Two independent pillars and elephants is present at the entrance of the temple. The complex covers 60,000 sq.ft. The temple tower raises to a height of 90 feet and is very much like the Rathas in Mahabalipuram. Kailasanathar Temple, Ellora consists of a gateway, a mandapam kind of enclosure for Nandhi, artistic carvings present on obelisk pillars of 50 ft. height present on either side of Nandhi mandapam, mandapam having vimanas build like a receding steps away from anyone, galleries having porticos as present in temples in the Tamil Nadu, etc., There is a debate that university once existed in Ellora and this building can still be seen in Ellora.
Looking from the Ariel view of the Ajanta Caves it is clearly seen that the arrangement of caves runs for a few hundreds of meter traversing a semi-circular path - this actually one part of it exposed. If we think this Ariel view as a whole then we can easily understand that there are circular paths and they are well marked by caves and the circular paths are present in steps i.e., in the descending steps towards the centre. This indicates they should have an arrangement of building the shelters according to the requirement of the administration with the Head or Chief present in the Centre and the next level of administration present just below the Head Office and the next administration level just below this and so on. If one is able to have a complete ariel view from the top most point near the Ajantha caves this will be very much evident.
According to Tamil Literature this part was ruled by the Naga Kings whose symbol is serpent. This Kind of arrangement also can be thought of as Snake swirling around it with Head present in the middle and the tail present in the last level. Is this represented symbolically in the cave 16 in Ellora with a figure present in the middle and surrounded by two elephants and the kind of step arrangement as described above for the Ajanta caves. Also with this kind of arrangement it is not easy for anyone to meet or capture the Chief that easily both officially or through attack. So defence had infact remained as top priority. Cave 16 is exclusively Dravidian in nature. Besides this arrangement had been surrounded by hills and other sort of lands. Hills within hills and then a city within that hill had been a part of city building of ancient Dravidians – one can also compare this kind of city to Paazhi in TuluNadu because almost this kind of arrangement is present for this city of Paazhi. Some unique kind of connection exists between the Cave no. 16 – Ellora, Ajanta caves and Paazhi.
Even today there are places in Sholapur known by the name Velapur. In Kathiawar there are several places by the name Bela corrupt form of Vela. In the Ahmedabad Taluk there is a place called Velaapuram, in the Puna there is a place called Veezhakam, on the southern side of this place another name of the place is Belgaum corrupt form of Velgaum – this place is also known as Veezhekgraamum to the locals and also it was the capital of Kathampars on those days. Nearby is also a place Belhtti corrupt form of Velhtti.
This kingdom includes the states with in the Vindhya Plateau . One of the most celebrated state is Avanti. Mahabharata refers this state as, the most powerful of the kings had ruled from this city which was present with in this state probably present aside of the river Narmada and the adjoining places. Brahma Purana and Bhavisya Purana does mention this state. The Matsya Purana says that the people of this Avanti state belong to the race of Hayahayas – as already mentioned this is the first race of the Yadhus. It is learned that there are five subdivisions of Hayahayas with one of the Hayahayas ruling the Avanti. Kartaviryarjuna of the Hayahaya dynasty was a powerful king. Bhagavatham also makes a mention of him. Around the age of 12 due to his supreme meditating power he was gifted with a thousand hands and legs. This state of Avanti was divided into two sectors with the northern sector having its capital at Ujjayini and the southern sector having its capital at Mahismati. Kartaviryarjuna actually ruled from Mahismati which was situated on the banks of Narmada.
Another region situated in this part of the empire is Anupa. Epic Mahabharata mentions the word Sagaranupa in several places. Harivamsa also makes a mention of this. Vayu purana mentions about this place and associate this place with the two races of the Hayahaya dynasty besides it mentions a place called as Narmadanupa. Epigraphic evidence suggests that this region should have lied near Mahismati possibly Saurashtra region.
Our tamil literature addresses a king by the name Anu who is the son of Yayathi. Also another king by the name AnupaThevan who belongs to the race of Yadhus. In ancient astronomy there is a period mentioned by the name of Anupa as AnuthithaPeriod. Even today there is a race of people present in the Tirunelveli, madurai and coimbatore and its surrounding place who call themselves by the name Anuppar who trace their origin to the agricultural regions of Karnataka region.
Utkala or Utkalam is another country present in this Empire. This should be the region in and around Orissa. On those days it seems that the peoples from this country seems to be civil engineers on all field. Architectural and scientific marvel Konark temple is from this region. One of the rishi by the name Ottiravaakananan can be traced to this country. Generally they had belonged to the race of the Thuruvans. Brahmanda purana refers to this place. Skanda purana refers this place as being situated between rivers and lied somewhere in the ocean. So, this place should have belonged to the country that had sunk in the ocean already and just to remember the name of such country this country must have been renamed. Again both of the great epics besides puranas makes a mention of these. This name had remained the same throught out the history and even in the inscription.
There are notable inscriptions here – some of them are Badal pillar inscription, an epigraph, sonapur inscription, bhuvanesvara stone inscription of Narasiha I(a velir king?) stating about the temple for Vishnu at Ekamra etc., This country also finds a mention in the Tirumalai rock inscription during the reign of Rajendra Chola and in the Adilpur copperplate of Narendra-Bhanjadeva. Puri also lied within this region which is famous for its temple. A lot of comparision can be made between this temple and the monuments of ancient origin in the America continent.
Dasarna is another country situated in this Empire. At one period of time it was gifted to the lord Rama. Both epics and Vayu purana and Matsya purana mention about this place. Its capital was called Vaisyanagara. Various references place this country in different places, Periplus says that this region is situated towards the east of the Masulipatnam in Andra Pradesh, Ptolemy places this country towards the west of the river Ganges, the vidisa region in Gwalior and generally the Chattisgarh District in the Madhya Pradesh. Our Tamil literature says that KaanthtaraNadu is the father land of this country. In KaanthtaraNadu there is place called as Raththinapuram. This region is one of the places that actually lies in the Indus valley civilization. It is situated in the Afganistan, present along the banks of the Kabul river between the Kunar and the Indus. The capital of this country is Purushapura. The country is named after a son of the Yayathi. Dasarna is a country which was ruled by a Yadhava clan.
Karusa is another country situated in this Kingdom. Bhagavata purana and Vayu purana mentions these city. Pliny refers this city as Chrysei. Possibly this represents the Shahbad district of Bihar. As per the inscription at Masar the major portion of this country lies between the rivers Sona and Karkanasa.
There is another country by a name Anudra. Natyasastra, Varahamihra, odra of Yoginitantra, Padma purana, Brahma purana, Skandha purana, Telugu Odhrulu, Mahabharata, Buddhist works etc., mention about this city. The soil in this country is very rich and fertile here. The climate is hot too. Pliny, Hiuen Tsang, Cunningham have all mentioned about this country. This can be compared with the adjoining regions of the Orissa state.
Tosala is yet country present in this Empire. Ptolemy mentions this by the name Tosalei. Later part of the history King Ashoka had used this country as the seat of his provincial government of Kalinga. Some of the ruins of a city present near Dhauli today may be ruins of this country. After this, the region was occupied by various races who divided the region into various sectors and started their rule from that place. Eastern range of the Satpura range, Mahadeo hills, Maikala range, Ramgarh hills, tributaries of the river Narmada, river Mahanadi and its source and places that lied on both sides of Wenganga formed this part of the country.
Another name for this country is Daksinakosala which states that this is the southern most part of the great country Kosala or Kosambi. Ruled by the generations of the king Kusan. Kausambi used to be its capital on those days. One of the great countries that was situated on the banks on the river Yamuna on those days had contained fortified cities with a kind of water system present that protects the fort from easy entry for others, a citadel like structure with very huge walls decorated with flags surrounding the complex, streets that are wide enough and had space for huge building in which complexes were build and were filled with riches show cases the wealth of this country. Usually this kind of place is filled with peoples of other countries. This city also consists of a huge rest place for peoples who visited this country from distant places and huge park nearby too. This country peoples were known for technical arts and crafts, art of carvings and particularly the art of sculpture.
Another kingdom present in this region is Bhojam. This was ruled by the Yadhu clans. Probably situated near the banks of river Narmada. This country had actually belonged to a very great empire known by the name Vidharpam. Also known by the name Berar. Berar is actually the kingdom of Bhishnaka. Rukmani, daughter of Bhishnaka is the one who was loved and later on married by Krishna.
Tripura(Triglypton by Ptolemy), Tundikera, Mekala(mountainous region), Vitihotras, etc., are some of the countries which lied in this region.
Velirs were Hoysalas: According to Mysore Gezetteer written by Lewis Rice it is known that the Hoysalas are actually called as HoysalaYadhavars. Besides the head of the Yadhava clan is known to the Kannada people by the name Bholalar which is the corrupt form of Velalar. HoysalaYadhavars are also known by the name BholalaYadhavars. The capital of their country is known by the name Vaezhulur or Vaezhaapuram. Tamil literature Purananooru states a king by the name Pulikadimal belonging to the Velir group who is actually from the empire of Dwaraka and their lineage had ruled the parts of Mysore sector too. Besides the history of the kings of Kongku kings there are also other books which explains the Hoysalas and the Yadhavars are the same. The art and architecture of the Hoysalas are very unique and known through out the world. A pillar that could rotate about its centre of axis and a pillar that stands on its own by the centre of gravity on a star shaped platform are some of the scientific achievements of Hoysalas.
So far we have seen that the Velirs were Yadhavars, Chalukyas, Hoysalas, apart from which they belong to Sathu Maazhava, Kaalasurikazh, Kaaktheya Ganapathi, Koondaveedu Kajhapathi, VijayanagaraYadhava according to James Princeps a noted historian and Mysore Gazetteer. Besides it is noted almost all of the ancient kings race of the ancient India were all Velirs. One day we will know who are all the Velir kings who ruled the states of the Indus Valley civilization. It is a very well known fact that king system of governance was absent on those days. So, it was all based on how great the individual excelled in all the kind of arts and science on those days. Remember as I had mentioned
earlier Velir is actually a term used to denote a person who had done great work in all aspects of arts and science so that he becomes an expert in all fields. Only such person can foresee the great Empire and can understand, provide guidance and can even innovate new things better than before in a straight forward way. Newer and newer discoveries about this kind of lost civilizations are throwing light on the technology that were prevelent on those days with some of them are totally perplexing and sophisticated.
There are notable scientific achievements of this Empire as a whole. Some of them are dicussed below: The Iron Pillar present inside the Qutub Minar complex in Delhi which is noted for rustless nature through many centuries. The origin of the Iron Pillar is traced back to Udayagiri in Andra Pradesh during the time of a Velir Prince probably a Chalukya King. Near by the location of this pillar in Udayagiri was also an astronomical observatory on those days. Vindhya Range and surrounding places were a major source for iron ore around 3000 B.P and even before that. So minimum period for this Iron Pillar should be around 2800 B.P. – 3000 B.P. Varaha carved out of the walls are present in the place near by to the location where the location of the Iron Pillar was present. There is also a Varaha cave nearby. In this pillar there are several changes that was introduced which could be noted particular both at the top and bottom of the pillar. The notable change in the elements of the pillar can be found from Ellora as earlier shown besides some unique kind of designs were brought in. The kind of design that was used by king Asoka for placing lion symbol in the pillar may have been from this kind of pillar. Even today scientists are perplexed about this kind of technology which was achieved centuries ago.
Temple for Lord Jagannath at Puri and Konark Temple both being situated at costal areas are also having iron pillars of this kind which have resisted corrosion. A Temple for Godessess Mookambika is present in the Kollur region, amidst the dense forest in the hilly region Kodachadri. Kodachadri is situated about 1450 metres above the sea level, receives an annual rainfall of around 600 cm – 700 cm and it rains for almost 7-8 months in a year. Imagine a medium sized Iron Pillar placed at such a location remaining with out rusting at such a place – Amazingly this is what that is happening. Apart from this there is a Iron Pillar at Dhar, Madhya Pradesh which is having similar kind of property. There is a question among scientists what kind of technology in earth did these possess that can make these kind of achivements happen.
After this Empire had collapsed and after several centuries a unique kind of Cannon having special kind of characteristics was actually made in Tanjore district, Tamil Nadu, South India. Perhaps the technology continued with the Tamils.
A number of unique kind of arts made out of copper either individually or collectively are present scattered over a area of Uttar Pradesh. What this represents a divine being, or a celestial art, or the kind of script or probably a fish symbol that was prevelent during the time of Indus is not known. The notable feature about this art is that it is made up of copper as early as 2000 B.C.
To create objects, things, materials, etc., of these kinds is not possible on a single day and also not possible with out a systematic and well developed study. This needs a long period of study of various subjects, proven results, trial and error methods etc., Yes, on those days universities existed and they were many. Only few of them have been discovered. Notable of them are Taxila University, Nalandha University, Odantapuri University-Bihar, Somapura-Bangaladesh, Jaggadala University-Bengal, Kanchi University, etc., are just a few of them. Both Taxila and Nalandha University have been of international repute on those days. More than 95% of these universities are yet to be discovered. Taxila might be Takka Nadu which can be traced through ancient Tamil Litrature. Takka Nadu belongs to a Yadhu king Supatheran. Nalandha might be named after a Velir king Nalan or Nazhan whose lineage can be traced to Yadhava clan.
In Nalanda University few thousands of students studied right from A-Z of arts and science. This university had few thousand Gurus too – a good Student-Guru ratio. Libraries, Astronomical-Observataries, Labs etc., were a common feature. Buddha frequently visited this university. Kings and students of all walks of life studied together. Hieun Tsang and Yuan Chwang Chinese scholars stayed, learned and wrote elaborate notes about this university.
DEFENCE ART of This Empire:
Centers for getting training on how to use weapons, advanced weaponary, how to keep oneself physically fit, yoga training, aerobatics exercises, exercises involved in gymnastics etc., were all present in Tulunadu during 17th century A.D. These centers were known by the name garadi but gradually lost its significance after 18th century A.D. It is said that peoples from other regions used to come and get trained over here. There are 18 such arts of defence involved. In garadi kind of centers there used to be both idols of gods and huge spacious training for its students which says that this used be a worship spot and training center too. The idols present in garadi is Chandrika Parameshwari goddess and Veerabadrar. Besides in all these places a round pillar is kept for training. This kind of art is known by the MALLAR KAMBAM. Our sangam works also mentions about these kind of centers.
The word kalari used to represent a battle field or a place for learning the arts of defences. Pattina Palai do mention to a number of Kalaries that were present on those days. Kalari tatt means a victor and Kalari kozhai means a loser. Kalarippayattu was infact written briefly in Tamil manuscripts. Today most of these works in tamil are lost and it seems that sage Agastya brought this art with him and taught them to students. Kalarippayattu is actually just one of the art in the garadi centers and it is from Tulunadu this art traveled to the present day Kerela where this art is now revived.
Garadi centers were present in many numbers even before 300 years ie., centuries after the original citizens had actually left this country. One could imagine how great this kind of arts could be since its strong presence was felt centuries after centuries and even today this could be traced.
Goddess Chandrika Parameshwari is none other than Goddess Parvathi wife of Lord Shiva and Veerabadrar is the God for Braveness who is also considered one of the sons of Lord Shiva. The name Chandrika Parameshwari states that as once stated that Tuluva Velalars were from Chandra Gupta lineage the name Chandrika may be attributed to Chandra which is moon. Veerabadrar is having its natural presence as this art has to do away with braveness and there is nothing strange about it.
Mallar Kambam is just one of the art of this Defence system. Kambam is word for pillar which is part of this art. Mallar can be attributed to the country which was retrieved by Lord Rama’s brother Lakshmana from a cruel king. But Tamil literature traces the origin of the country Mallar which belonged to this great empire to the location in Punjab particularly the Multan region and the other is in the high lands and hilly regions of the Bihar. Mallar Kambam is performing various kinds of asanas with ropes and wooden pillars. So, there is nothing unique in practicing this art in the hilly terrains where rock climbing, cliff hanging, climbing the high lands, flying from one area to another with the aid of rope, etc., are all common.